Divide the people in different social groups according to social hierarchies on the basis of social race, class, wealth, family and education etc. Income and wealth is the most common basis of stratification. The stratification of society is also based upon either an open, or closed, system.


We can achieve status through merit and effort. Some European countries have an open merit system. There anybody can achieve a particular status by his effort and struggle.


In closed based stratification the status is ascribed, it is given by family. 

If we see in surrounding us we can observe stratification, it is all around us. For example people belonging to rich and wealthy families normally lived in posh areas like DHA, Bahria Town, Model Town etc. If we move slightly away from these areas we can see such areas where people are living in very low facilities like narrow streets, no cleanliness, poor sewerage and drainage etc.

Origin of Stratification

If we look back in history. We came to know that in the era of hunting and gathering society the status depended on hunting and leadership ability. 

As societies grew up the method of stratification changed with time. Hunting and gathering societies were replace with agrarian societies. The rise of agriculture brought up the emergence of cities, and stratification based on occupational class.

Types of Stratification

There are some types of stratification are below.

Slavery and indentured servitude

Slavery is one of lowest level in stratification system. A slave has no its own power or wealth. The owner of a slave treat him as like his own propert and exploit the laber of slave for economic gain. Indentured servitude is substitutional shape of slavery. In indentured servitude an individual does work for his owner without salary in order to repay the indenture or loan in particular time duration. In modern era there is no concept of slavery , it is crime in modern societies, but there are many cases regarding slavery and Indentured.

Caste System

When an individual is born, he is ascribe to a caste. Caste system is the second type of stratification. Caste determines the different aspects of his life such as family name, occupation, marriage etc. In India a strong caste system is on the basis of Hinduism. The individuals who are in higher caste are consider at higher level spiritually. The people who belong to the lowest caste are consider as untouchable. They face misbehavior from other higher castes. The caste system is pull the people down officially but its roots are still embedd deeply in non urban areas. 

Class System

We found the class system normally in all societies. It’s based on different factors such as family background, wealth, education and occupation. Class system is open stratification unlike the class system. People can move to different classes other than his parents. 


It is an ideal system of stratification. In it an individual can get a status by personal effort and merit. In history there is no society that is solely based on merit.

What are Human Scavengers?

The term Human scavenger is use for India the people who are cleaning the human excreta from toilets, open drain, sever or pit. Mostly they use tools such as buckets and shovels etc. and shifted this scrap to miles away from the living areas.

In India men and women both are doing this job manually, they are manual scavengers. They use their hands and different tools manually. They collect human waste and load it on their head and dispose of it from the out of settlements. Manual scavenger do jobs on caste basis. Men and women from low caste do this job. They do not reward with any cash on a daily or monthly basis, they reward with food and old clothes at different events. It’s openly against human rights.

 Indian central govt. made many policies to eliminate it. And this job is consider as a violation of human rights. But it still exists in many areas of India. Because this policy is not implement properly.

The Doctor and the Saint, The Controversial Book

It is a controversial book on caste, race and annihilation of caste. It is a debate between B.R Ambedkar and M.K Gandhi on cast system. That is the best book to understand the inequality of humans on the basis of caste system in India. It is an analysis by Arundhati Roe on the fight of B.R Ambedkar against the poor race and caste system in India. Roe Exposes uncomfortable and surprising Political thoughts about the caste system in India. Ambedkar is a revolutionary, he is well famous not only in India but all over the world.

Roe Vs Wade case

In 1973 the American supreme court gave a right to women for the abortion, when an American put up his case in the front of supreme court for the right of abortion. The seven out of nine justices gave her that right. But now in 2022 the Supreme court took a decision over that case and dismissed the Roe vs Wade case. The American public and different NGO’s took it as the against the right to privacy of women. The Americans and NGO’s are now protesting against the decision.

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